Reflections of Newcastle 1914-18

On the 1 July 2016 after a year of researching, writing and designing, ‘Reflections of Newcastle 1914-18’ was launched and became available to the public. Consisting of three iBooks and three city walks, ‘Reflections of Newcastle 1914-18’ explores Newcastle during the war and in particular its intellectual, cultural and social life. The iBooks can be downloaded at http://www.reflectionsofnewcastle.co.uk

On the day of the launch, the November Club developed three very different installations and live events. Throughout the Friday and Saturday soldiers were seen marching from the Lit & Phil to Newcastle Central Station ready to take the train to war. When not marching they could be found at the Lit & Phil reading, dancing or in their own thoughts. This was made even more poignant by the 1 July being the centenary of the start of the Battle of the Somme.

 

At the Lit & Phil November Club have devised a trail around the library showcase some of the finds that can be found on the libraries bookshelves and in its collection. This includes minutes from the Lit & Phil boards meetings from the war period, a list of books for the newly opened children’s library, books donated to the front, extracts from Ruth Dodds diary, a medical book about artificial limbs, copies of German war cartoons taken from a catalogue that were displayed in 1916 in the centre of Newcastle, alongside the bound copies of the Times and information about how to spot and what to do if there is a Zeppelin raid. This trail around the Lit & Phil will be home until November 2016.

 

At JG Windows, one of the UK’s longest established music stores, open since 1916 at Central Arcade in Newcastle, a recreation of a World War One era shop window with music from the time can be found until November 2016.

 

The installations at the Lit & Phil and JG Windows are open till November 2016 and the iBooks are available to download from the project website http://www.reflectionsofnewcastle.co.uk.

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Reflections of Newcastle 1914-18

This week has been a long time coming but we are finally there. Reflections of Newcastle 1914-18 will launch on Friday 1 and Saturday 2 July at the Lit & Phil. The iBooks will be available to download or look at on a Lit & Phil iPad.

Alongside the iBooks will be a number of live events curated by November Club. These include:

Lit & Phil – Free Guided tours

Lit & Phil Library Trail exploring life on the Home Front an exhibition of German War Cartoons, light and audio installations using archive material found at the Lit & Phil including a Whispering Gallery and light boxes with archive material from the Lit & Phil and a display of Zeppelins.. Open during library hours.

Newcastle Central Station – pop up performance by a group of soldiers heading to the front.

Friday 1st July: 9am, 11am, 2.30pm, 5pm

Saturday 2nd July: 9am, 11am, 2.30pm, 3.30pm

J.G. Windows, Central Arcade – recreation of a World War One era shop window with music from the time. 1 July – 11 November 2016

We will hopefully see you on Friday or Saturday for the launch

Reflections of Newcastle 1914-18

 

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Armstrong College Commemorations

Over the next few months, interns and volunteers on the Reflections project will write a few blog posts to discuss their experience working on the project and some of the research materials they have uncovered. This time Northumbria University intern Abbie McGowan discusses her research into Armstrong College and the Lit & Phil during the war.

Although I was given three themes to explore, most of the material I encountered focused on Wartime Education with a particular emphasis on the impact of the Second World War on Armstrong College.

Principal Annual Reports of Armstrong College to the Council successfully summarized the sentiment that seemed to be present at the time in the following:

“It is natural that the work of the College should have been seriously affected by the war not only by the diminution of its ordinary activities but by the opportunity which has been afforded it of contributing what it could to the general resources of the country.” 

Understandably, the war impacted teaching at Armstrong College what with the inevitable occupation of its buildings by the War Office from August 1914. There were significant reductions in resources whilst, as a result of conscription, class numbers dramatically declined in second and third year courses especially. Nonetheless, sessions did continue despite these obvious disadvantages and inhibitions. The College still received local support with each Department having been provided with a temporary location to allow for the continuation of its academic efforts. The Department of Classics and Ancient History both experienced the generosity of the Lit and Phil whilst the Department of Modern History and Economics and Commerce were both based at the Mining Institute. Annual reports show that such departments actually benefitted from their relocations because students had access to a library which exceeded – both in range and detail – any collection of books that would have been available to them at the College previously. Furthermore, to a certain extent the increased level of pressure faced by the College because of limits to departmental resources was actually balanced out by the aforementioned reduction in the number of students.

Not only was it apparent that the war influenced classes and resources but that staff and students alike were more than willing to face the consequences of its influence because it was their contribution to the war effort. A sacrifice that did not even compare to the sacrifice brave citizens made in joining the armed forces. Nearly all of the archival material studied commemorated those who actively participated in the global conflict. Most interestingly in the Departmental Annual Reports of Armstrong College to the Council was a request for a war memorial in the form of a library. “The fifth year of exile from Armstrong College buildings has been, for the Library, signalised by one outstanding event; full of promise, in that the College Council has expressed approval of the project…that an Armstrong College War Memorial should take the form of a new Library Building equipped worthily as a record of the gallant part played by members of the College in the great struggle for European justice and freedom.” Moreover, on numerous occasions I discovered a ‘Roll of Honour’ – specifically intended to remember those who had participated in the war – regardless of what kind of material it was that was being examined. For example, The Northerner (the official Armstrong College Calendar) listed those who went to war; those who received medals and those who were killed in service. It also published full page spreads dedicated to those closely associated with the College itself, as did the Durham University Journal.

Thus, it is obvious that whilst Armstrong College and other institutions in Newcastle did suffer as a result of the war, there was never any bitterness felt. Instead such establishments were more than willing to make whatever sacrifice possible. To continue with life as best as they could under the circumstances was evidently the greatest act of patriotism and the most poignant way to recognize the sacrifice made by men across the nation; including those of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

 

Abbie McGowan

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Education throughout the War

Throughout the First World War there was a concerted effort to keep the educational purpose of the library intact. At the start of the war, one of the Lit and Phils earliest contributions to the war effort was to lend rooms to the Armstrong College for use of classes, the use of the library to all Armstrong College students attending classes in Bolbec Hall, Neville Hall, and the use of the ladies room, the record room and the smoking room as common space. This combined war effort with the educational ethos of the Lit and Phil.

IMG_0944What is more intriguing is the continuation of extension lectures and talks throughout the war years. In the end of year report for 1918 it states that “during the four and a quarter years of the war the usual lecture courses have continued and have afforded a welcome relief to members from the stress of war conditions”. In 1914, for example, the university extension lectures went ahead with topics including ‘Representative Men of the Nineteenth Century’ and ‘England and her Neighbours in the Far East’. Although the report for this year notes that both courses gave much satisfaction and were very well received, it also tells us that few students did the paper work or sat for the examination. This was repeated in 1915, where Mr. Reynolds course exam was not sat by any student.

What this can tell us, is something of the dedication of the Lit and Phil to education during these trying years. Their commitment to continuing education courses, despite a lack of participants in the exam cycles, shows important education was considered. In the records of 1916 there is a note stating that “it may be interesting to note that each lecturer stated that the paper work done was the best he had ever received in a University Extension Course”. It was clearly important to keep a ‘business as usual attitude’ up amongst the members of the Lit and Phil, and the wider members of the public who attended the extension courses. Their emphasis on continuing education throughout WW1 undoubtedly contributed to the view that “notwithstanding war conditions, the Society has continued to flourish, and is now stronger than at any previous period of its history”

 

Hannah Simpson

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The Lit and Phil Ambulance

Over the next few months, interns and volunteers on the Reflections project will write a few blog posts to discuss their experience working on the project and some of the research materials they have uncovered. This time Northumbria University intern Hannah Simpson discusses her research into the goings on at the Lit & Phil during the war.

Captain Dennis Bayley wrote to the library in 1918 to

“covey to the society my personal thanks and those of the joint war committee for their magnificent and patriotic gift, and will you please tell them that during the recent heavy fighting it has been of inestimable service, and the gratitude of many of the men who have received assistance from it is very great”.

He was talking about the gift of an ambulance that had been purchased through a subscription by library members. As was noted in the written proposal for the donation that “whilst it is primarily the duty of the government to deal with the wounded, the war is upon so gigantic a scale that the government relies almost entirely upon the British Red Cross” to whom the ambulance was donated.

The subscription was admirably met with donations ranging from 1s to £20. The ambulance was amongst the many charitable enterprises undertaken by the |Lit and Phil during WW1, including donations of novels and magazines (6000 in 1918) to soldiers and sailors fighting the war.

Blog Post 1 PicThis aptly demonstrates the charitable nature that lived at the heart of the Lit and Phil. Of course, as were all people and places during the First World War, the library itself had been affected by the losses of war, and these efforts of charity reflect how deeply these loses were felt. The range of donations show us that members of all backgrounds happily donated to the ambulance cause, and is quite staggering when you realise that the £488 raised through the subscription would be worth approximately £30,000 today.

After noting the copy of the letter of thanks from Captain Reynolds, the record states that “many members have joined the Forces, and some have fallen”, a poignant reminder of the personal reasons that lay behind the donation of the ambulance.

 

Hannah Simpson

 

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Women in Newcastle and their wartime roles, 1914-18

Over the next few months, interns and volunteers on the Reflections project will write a few blog posts to discuss their experience working on the project and some of the research materials they have uncovered. This time volunteer Catherine Humphries discusses her research into Women in Newcastle and their wartime roles.

My research for this project has concentrated on the role of women in Newcastle during the First World War, with particular emphasis on munitionettes, nurses and female activists.

I began by looking at the diaries of Ruth Dodds (b. 1890). Ruth was active in professing her pacifist, feminist and liberal beliefs, serving as secretary of the Gateshead branch of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage societies after joining at the start of the war.

Gaiety Picture Hall_Nelson StreetHer diaries offered interesting insights, particularly of the expected role of women in wartime in contrast to the role they carried out. For her entries after the initial outbreak of war, Ruth explains that her father, upon taking a train to Durham with the 8th Durham Territorials, witnessed a soldier saying to his wife upon his departure, “Tak’ care of the bairns!”, emphasizing the belief that women’s role should remain unchanged in wartime. She also expresses shame that she was feeling depressed about the war when her sisters carry on, “both splendid at ‘business as usual’”, suggesting that women’s assigned wartime role was to maintain the morale of the home front. Ruth mentions meeting with Dr Ethel Williams on several occasions, the prominent Newcastle doctor, socialist and suffragist, emphasizing her continued activism and pacifism during wartime.

Ruth’s diary entries also allude to the role of cinemas and theatres in wartime; “We went to the Picture Hall tonight, but we didn’t escape the war, we say the King reviewing troops” and cinema goers stood up and cheered at the National Anthem. Referring perhaps to the Gaiety Picture Hall in Nelson Street, first opened as The Music Hall in 1838, she suggests that people saw cinemas as a form of escapism during the war. Ruth also notes on the 10th October 1914 that she “hung about to see the soldiers marching to the recruiting meeting in the Tyne & Pavilion”, indicating that theatres were used as recruitment centres as well as- for entertainment in wartime Newcastle.

Ruth also highlights another role undertaken by women during the war; writing letters and sending parcels, containing books and cigarettes, “to our soldiers” and prisoners of war. This supportive role of women is also indicated in Ruth’s entries describing her meetings with the Reservists wives, where mothers attending with their children and “told stories of their husbands at war”, forming a supportive network of women. Ruth also refers to her conversations with Myra, a nurse with the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) in which women served as cooks, nurses and maids during the war. Their responsibilities included sorting and washing uniforms as well as feeding and looking after wounded soldiers. See Heaton History Groups research on VAD nurses for more information

My research followed on from this enquiry, and I began to look at the Red Cross online archive to find women VADs serving in Newcastle. There were two VAD auxiliary hospitals during the war, 10/ Northumberland V.A., Pendower and St. John Ambulance Brigade Hospital in Kensington Terrace, located near the Hancock museum and Newcastle University Robinson Library. The Royal Victoria Infirmary provided training for VAD nurses, and are depicted here in the staff photo of the 1st Northern General hospital wearing the Red Cross on their uniforms in 1916.

I was able to find the VAD cards for nurses serving in Newcastle during the war, including Miss Elizabeth Alice Burdon and Miss Hilda Carnes, who both served in VAD auxiliary hospitals, as well as Miss Phyllis Cromwell who served as a cook. From looking at the VAD cards it became clear that the majority of women employed in the Red Cross VAD hospitals in Newcastle during the war were single, suggesting that the wartime role of women in Newcastle was largely dependent of marital and familial status and obligations.

Single women, such as Ruth Dodds, often undertook wartime work in factories, becoming ‘munitionettes’. Ruth worked in Armstrong’s Munitions factory in Newcastle and spoke of her work with excitement. It is clear that women were encouraged to retain their femininity while undertaking masculine positions of wartime work with their munitions overalls from Fenwick’s being “both pretty and useful”.

My research into Armstrong’s Factory and women workers led me to consulting J. Bath’s book, Great War Britain Tyneside: Remembering 1914-18. Bath emphasizes the communities created by the wartime necessity of employing women. ‘Armstrong’s opened a large canteen specifically for the women workers. Special social clubs were formed for the women themselves… which provided light refreshments, music, reading, games’. Bath also alludes to the role of cinemas in wartime Newcastle; Going to the cinema offered escapism from war, especially for ‘women and children, who were generally not welcomed in the pub… Many families routinely went every week, enjoying a touch of escapism in a bleak time. Newcastle alone had thirty cinemas in 1914’.

My research also focused on female activism in Newcastle during the First World War. In D. Thom’s Nice Girls and Rude Girls: Women Workers in World War I, evidence of activism in Armstrong’s factory as a result of the employment of women workers necessitated by the circumstances of war can be found. Armstrong munitionettes took part in ‘the tea-break strike’ which developed into a strike for female workshop representation, ultimately gaining union organisation and recognition. That the circumstances of wartime gave women a stage for political activism is also evident in the actions of Dr Ethel Williams. In N. Todd’s article ‘Ethel Williams: medical and suffrage pioneer’, we see that the Williams took her stand against the war during her time as secretary of the Newcastle Workers’ and Soldiers’ Council, hiring Newcastle town hall for holding anti-war meetings to express solidarity with the February 1917 revolution in Russia.

From my research, I can conclude that the role of women in Newcastle during the First World War encompassed several positions depending on familial responsibilities, ranging from political activism, work in munitions factories, nursing as well as supporting and maintaining the morale of the home front.

Catherine Humphries

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Ethel Williams’ Campaign for Educational and Employment Opportunities for Women

Ethel Williams was also heavily involved with the development of the Workers’ Educational Association (WEA) in the North-East. In particular, Williams was interested in promoting educational opportunities for women. Indeed, the WEA was open to women, and during the Great War women took an active role in keeping the WEA going. Twenty-seven classes were arranged for women on the themes of Literature, Hygiene, Home Nursing and First Aid – Williams taught on some of these courses. By 1916 a local women’s advisory committee was set up, amongst the 18 members of the committee were Ethel Williams and Lisbeth Simm. (see blog post on Lisbeth Simm) These women kept the WEA afloat during the war; Williams recruited new tutors from the Durham University Women’s Graduates’ Union, which she chaired. Her car was useful, enabling her to tour the region, setting up courses on ‘Famous Englishwomen’ and women’s health. Williams also worked with Hilda Trevena to launch women’s courses with the Women’s Co-operative Guilds (WCGs) across the North-East. The Women’s Co-operative Guild was founded in 1883 and was popular amongst housewives, introducing them to the principles of co-operation and formed as the women’s branch of the co-operative movement. The WCGs sought to raise the status of women, as keepers of the home. After the war, the Guilds educated women about citizenship and in 1933 they produced a white poppy to wear on Armistice Day, promoting peace alongside remembrance.

During the war, Lisbeth Simm and Ethel Williams also worked together to provide support for women as their husbands went off to serve on the front line. In April 1915, Williams addressed a meeting about women’s work during the war. She argued that women who took up jobs during the war should receive equal pay to their male counterparts and adequate training. Indeed, many women were employed at the Armstrong-Whitworth armaments factory in Elswick. Williams helped working women to find clothing and healthcare during the war.

Ethel Williams was a remarkable figure. She was active in a range of causes relating to women’s rights, peace, health care, and social reform in the North-East and at the international level. She retired from her medical practice in 1924 and moved to Stocksfield on Tyne, near Hexham. She remained active in the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom throughout the 1920s and 1930s, travelling to international congresses and the League of Nations Conference on the Traffic of Arms in 1925. She died in 1948.

 

Sarah Hellawell

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Ethel Williams’ Pacifism during the Great War

Just six-days after the second battle of Ypres had begun, 1200 women gathered at The Hague to discuss the issues of war and peace.

Most of the suffrage movement had suspended its activity due to the war: the International Women’s Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) cancelled its Congress due to be held in Berlin. Similarly, the Pankhursts supported the national war effort and suspended their militant suffrage campaign. Although only a small group of women actively opposed the war, their efforts demonstrate the possibility of international solidarity for peace during wartime. A group of Dutch suffragists led by Aletta Jacobs – the first female doctor in the Netherlands – invited women to The Hague in February 1915 to discuss the issues of women’s rights and peace, and it was decided to organise an International Congress of Women from 28 April to 1 May 1915.

Members of the British women’s movement formed a British Committee of the International Women’s Congress to organise their attempts to attend the formative Congress at The Hague. Over 180 British women applied for passports to travel to The Hague, including Dr Ethel Williams. However, the British Foreign Office did not consider it desirable for a large group of British women to travel so close to the front line of war. They granted only 24 women permits to travel. Williams was not granted a permit. Nevertheless, restrictions on shipping routes across the North Sea prevented the British delegation from attending the Congress. Only three British women managed to get to The Hague in time. Kathleen Courtney and Chrystal Macmillan were already involved in relief work in Europe, and Emmeline Pethick Lawrence, who had been speaking in the USA, travelled with the American delegation to the Congress.

The British Women’s International League (WIL) was founded in October 1915 and by January 1916, the League had set up 18 local sections in locations across the country, including here in Newcastle.

Like the Hague Congress, the British WIL articulated their main aims in relation to peace and the enfranchisement of women, linking peace, progress, democracy, internationalism and women’s rights in their unique feminist-pacifist interpretation of war and peace. In 1916, following the introduction of the Military Service Act, WIL campaigned against conscription and supported the rights of Conscientious Objectors. The Women’s Peace Crusade, which managed to mobilise large numbers of working women for the goals of peace, spread throughout the country during the summer of 1917. 123 branches were formed in co-operation with the labour movement and the WIL, including branches in Darlington and Newcastle.

Williams was the Secretary of the Newcastle branch of the Women’s International League. She also attended the WILPF’s second international congress held in Zurich at the same time as the Paris peace talks at the end of the war. In addition, Williams was involved with a radical anti-war event in Newcastle, July 1917. As secretary of the Newcastle Workers’ and Soldiers’ Council, which declared solidarity with the Revolution in Russia, Williams hired the Newcastle Town Hall for a meeting of the Council. However, the council was often blocked by the Special Branch and this booking was withdrawn at short notice. The meeting was hastily rearranged at the Central Hall Temperance Institute, supported by Trade Unions and the ILP. The meeting collapsed into chaos: soldiers in civilian clothing hurled abuse at the stage and competing groups raucously sang ‘Rule Britannia’ and the ‘Red Flag’.

 

Sarah Hellawell

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Ethel Williams, an activist on Tyneside

Over the next few months, interns and volunteers on the Reflections project will write a few blog posts to discuss their experience working on the project and some of the research materials they have uncovered. This time volunteer Sarah Hellawell discusses her research into the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom and in particular Ethel Williams

My PhD research focuses on the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, a transnational women’s organisation formed in 1915 that combined the goals of women’s rights with securing permanent peace. This research has led me to uncover the work of Dr Ethel Williams, a suffragist and pacifist who lived in Newcastle upon Tyne.

DSC05314Williams was born 1863 in Cromer, attended Norwich High School for Girls and Newnham College, Cambridge.  She graduated in 1891 from the London School of Medicine for Women, having gained medical experience in Paris and Vienna.  She moved to Newcastle in 1896, where she set up a general medical practice in Ellison Place with Ethel Bentham, before moving to 3 Osborne Terrace in 1910.  Both women became active in the North East Society for Women’s Suffrage, which was affiliated to the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS), the constitutional branch of the women’s suffrage campaign, led by Millicent Garrett Fawcett.  Williams took part in the Mud March of 1907, the first large-scale procession organised by the NUWSS in London, and was involved with similar processions in Newcastle, many of which culminated with speeches and rallies on the Town Moor or included processions down Northumberland Street with suffrage banners.  As the first woman to drive in Newcastle, Williams’ car played a crucial role in the organisation of the suffrage movement in the area.  Williams was also secretary of the Newcastle Women’s Liberal Association, a member of the Literary and Philosophical Society, and served as a Justice of the Peace. Nevertheless, she became increasingly frustrated with the Liberals, as they failed to support the women’s cause, and she became aligned more closely to the Labour party.

Williams’ medical work with the disadvantaged of Newcastle and Gateshead, demonstrates a level of cross-class solidarity.  This experience fuelled her motivation for social reform and women’s suffrage in order to alleviate the deprivation of the working classes.  In 1917 she founded the Northern Women’s Hospital in Jesmond, which is now the Nuffield Health Clinic on Osborne Road. During the war, Williams made contact with the Belgian refugee community at the Elizabethville settlement in Birtley.  In the immediate aftermath of the war, she travelled to Austria, where she used her medical expertise to report on the starvation and malnutrition in Central Europe due to the Allied Naval Blockade, which remained in place even after the armistice in 1918.

In 1914, Williams opposed the war.  She joined the Union of Democratic Control, an organisation founded in 1914 by Charles P. Trevelyn, Ramsay MacDonald, Norman Angell and E.D. Morel, to oppose Government wartime restrictions and to highlight the lack of transparency and democracy in foreign relations.  Williams also joined the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, a transnational feminist-peace organisation formed at the International Congress of Women held at The Hague in April 1915.

Sarah Hellawell

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Newcastle Central Station and the Mining Institute

Over the next few months, interns and volunteers on the Reflections project will write a few blog posts to discuss their experience working on the project and some of the research materials they have uncovered. This time volunteer Tim Candlish discusses his research into Newcastle Central Station and The Mining Institute during the war. 

My research for this project has been focussed on two particular areas; Newcastle Central Station and the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. The former started with information regarding memorial plaques in and around the Central Station. For the latter, I began with a selection of material from the Institute’s War and Rescue project of 2014. I am indebted to Librarian Jennifer Kelly for her assistance.

Central Station_exteriorPrimarily the North Eastern Railway operated Newcastle Central Station during the war. Incorporated in 1854, it combined the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway, the York and North Midland Railway, the Leeds Northern Railway, and the Malton and Driffield Railway. Based in York, its principle stations were York and Newcastle Central stations, with works at Darlington, Gateshead, York, and elsewhere. NER employees went to war in considerable numbers, with an NER ‘pals’ battalion being raised for them in Hull in 1914. The final total of NER personnel killed in the course of the war came to two-thousand two-hundred and thirty-six.

Central Station_interiorThe memorial plaques included two lists of station employees who served in the war; from the Accountants Staff and the Goods Manager’s Staff. I was able to ascertain further information about these men from Darlington Borough Council’s Ken Hoole Study Centre, which includes a database of known North Eastern Railway personnel who served in the war, and an assortment of other NER documents. Of the thirty-eight men on both lists, the majority served in the enlisted ranks, though four Second Lieutenants were identified. Six are known to have died, with one listed as wounded, one as missing, and one known to have been a Prisoner of War.

The data from the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers focussed primarily on the stories of several members of the Institute. Most of these involved war service, but included one unfortunate example of a member who fell foul of the prevailing atmosphere. The man in question was a certain Arnold Lupton, a mining engineer expelled from the Institute in 1917 after being convicted under the Defence of the Realm Act for possessing an anti-war pamphlet. He was fined £200 with 50 guineas expenses, against which he unsuccessfully appealed. Another interesting story was that of George Jacobs, who died of his wounds on 10th October 1916 while serving with the 47th Field Ambulance, RAMC. Born in Russia to Israel and Augusta Jacobs in around 1855, he is known to have married Augusta Asher in Sunderland in 1876. Her parents, Israel and Adelaide Asher, were born in Germany but known to be living in County Durham by 1854. This union of the children of Russian and German immigrants was a reminder to me of just how intertwined the peoples of Europe had become in this period.

Mining Inst ambulanceThe material also contains information on a military ambulance funded by the Institute, including two photographs. The money was raised in response to a campaign by Colonel Sir Henry Dennis Readett-Bayley, whose Dennis Bayley fund raised over a million Pounds to provide motor ambulances, hospital boats, and other equipment. The Institute was only one of many such organisations within the mining and colliery community to respond. The Institute definitely bears further research, especially on the issue of links with similar organisations in Germany and elsewhere in Europe.

 

Tim Candlish

 

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